You're on the right track. As you've discovered, printing is all about color management. I like to think of it in two main stages: Creating the image, and printing the image.
Creating the Image
1. Start by shooting RAW.
2. Then use a quality monitor, preferably with an IPS panel to reduce/eliminate color shifts with viewing angle.
3. Calibrate your monitor with a tool like the X-Rite i1 Display Pro, ColorMunki or the Spyder equivalent.
4. Use a good post-processing program like Adobe Lightroom, Capture One, etc, to produce the final image.
Printing the Image
Send your image to your favorite lab or printing service, or...
...print your own images with your own printer. There are a couple of recent threads on this topic here on Canon Rumors. Printing can be challenging and rewarding. For some, it's cost prohibitive, for others (like me), it's worth the cost and can be less expensive if you take advantage of deals when they pop-up.
If you're wanting to print, you'll need to research the printers that are out there and choose the one that suits your needs best. Once you have the printer, be sure to print with quality paper and use an ICC profile specifically for that printer/paper combination. Either let the printer driver handle all the color correction, or let the program you're printing from (e.g. Lightroom) handle it all, but not both at the same time.
A couple of things to keep in mind:
1. Your monitor projects the image with light directly to your eyes. The printed photo reflects light from it. Brightness will differ, whites will differ, depending on paper selection, ambient light, et cetera. You won't get an image that looks just like the screen. That said, with decent color management, you should get something that matches color, white balance and contrast pretty well.
2. Color management is not an exact process. Every display, printer, paper, ink will differ in the colors they can each produce. It's easy to get sucked into a black hole of trying to make everything perfect. It won't be. But with reasonable effort, you should be able to produce pleasing results.
What I use:
1. Canon 70D, shooting RAW.
2. Dell Ultrasharp IPS monitor
3. Process in Adobe Lightroom.
4. Lightroom handles all color correction for printing.
5. Printer is a Canon PIXMA Pro-100 (pretty much free when the right rebate is available).
6. Canon and Red River papers, using Canon and Red River ICC profiles for each paper.
I've been able to produce results that make me do the happy dance. It's got me wanting to start doing my own mats, then my own frames, then wanting a 24" wide format printer. It's a slippery slope, so be warned.
To sum up, you must at least do color-managed creation. For printing, you can always send your work out to a lab or printing service.