I've enjoyed following this discussion even though I haven't understood any of the technical stuff. As far as I am aware, you press the shutter, magic happens, and the picture appears on the back of the camera.
But some interesting points have been raised in relation to dynamic range of digital cameras. When we take a photo, if our subject is only lit by incident light - the ev level falling on the subject, then the ev range is not as great as you might think. In England bright summer sun as an ev value of about 14.5, and in that situation the luminosity in even the darkest shadows would struggle to be less than 5, so the dynamic range in terms of stops is about 9.
With regard to the classic wedding picture - brides white and grooms black, there's a big difference in reflected light, but "correct" exposure should still enable correct detail in both black and white, eased substantially but the use of a reflector or fill in flash. In the film days the reason any wedding photographer worth their salt used medium format was to have the higher sync speed. This need was reduced when focal plane shutters increased to 200 sec sync.
The situation changes dramatically once you start to include the light source in your frame, such as bright skys, the sun itself, bride lit by bright window and that included in the frame. Then the ev range goes of the scale.
The Op's wedding pic is lit by incident light, and his camera has DR to spare, and when the DR of the Canon technology is pushed in this situation I've found certainly the 5D mki to be fine.
The first pic attached is a snap at a friends wedding, and I've used it as an example because it was it mid afternoon bright sun, the little boy has a plain bright white shirt, and the guy a dark (ish) suit. I wasn't exposing for the high lights, so part of the boy's shirt has gone to 255, but it was reflecting the sun straight back at me, so it's going to be bright white. This first pic is straight off the camera.
The second is 200% of the shadow on guy's leg. The third is the pic how I would produce it, lifting the dark shadows. The fourth is 200% of this. There is no noise in lightened area at all. ( even on the full size data).
I've then lifted the shadow so it's almost gone - and we have noise coming in, but who would want a pic like that - can't post it - had my four !
As I have said, once you try to include the light source itself in your frame the situation changes. At the present time it is impossible for a camera to record in one exposure what the eye can see...............because.............the eye doesn't see, your brain does. Your eye just gathers and focuses the light - the ( camera ) lens - our brains deal with interpreting this, prospective, field of view, dynamic range. ( This why people can "see" things that aren't really there ).
So our brains do instantly what !ex has spent some time doing with his beautiful pictures - the best of HDR technique - that makes you believe this is how we would have seen it. The dynamic range in this type of situation will be well over 14 stops. A picture that has been produced from a 14 stop DR camera in one frame, with the majority of the picture vastly under exposed due to exposing for the light source, and then pulling back the shadows, will never have the colour, luminosity and general "brio: of the technique that !ex has used. ( Well I say never, but not in the near future ).
So if you have a camera with 11 stops of DR and really good colour, tonal graduation from black to white etc, your pictured wont be held back by technology. Having a further 3 stops of DR would be no disadvantage as long as it doesn't compromise any of the other facts that are more critical to picture quality - the OP's original question I believe.
Incidentally I still maintain the the image quality that I have seen from 5D mkiii and D1X shows that these cameras can be superb. And an older camera that I always though could produce very good tonal graduation was the D200 - with it's 10 stops of DR.
Anyway I have probably bored the pants off anyone who has read through this, but I've got nothing better to do on a very wet afternoon !
( I forgot to change the pictures to sRGB for the web )