Depending on the lens and camera, a cropped image on a shorter lens may give more detail than a longer lens. For example, sigma has a 150-500 and a 120-400. My personal experience was that the 120-400 was able to resolve more detail than the 150-500..... And neither lens will touch the Canon 400mm.
I have tried teleconverters on all 3 lenses and despite the 1.4 times magnification, on the sigma lenses the cropped pictures without the teleconverters showed more detail, the Canon 400mm was slightly better, but not by any significant amount.
This seems to tell me that the limitation is the resolving power of the lens. Adding a teleconverter further degrades the image. To get improvements with a teleconverter you need a high quality lens and a high quality teleconverter, high enough quality that the combination is still above the resolving quality of the sensor.
An APS-C sensor, with its higher pixel density, will reach this resolving limitation sooner than a FF sensor..... So although it may have a longer reach, unless you have super quality lenses, it will be a poorer quality longer reach, and that's why in so many cases the FF camera with shorter reach shows more detail on that far away object.