The trick here is you have to realize that optical designers can do very funny things with focal length, like making an 800mm lens that's only 461mm long, or "retrofocusing" design with an effective focal length that exists entirely outside the lens.
The "focal length divided by aperture" rule is true, but the definition of focal length is more than meets the eye.
I'm sure the video guys here would point out we would all be better off using T-stop anyway.
The word "telephoto" indicates that a lens' focal length is longer than it's physical length. So a 135L is a telephoto lens, but a 85L isn't. Many photographer's assume that a "tele" indicates a longer focal length, but it doesn't. It is possible to have a fairly wide telephoto lens.
I learnt something today. So the 40mm pancake is in fact a telephoto lens. Who knew?
Yup! While the 50mm f1.4 USM isn't a telephoto either!