I have LR set up to import to Year/Date folders, preserving the original EOS file name. So anything I shoot and download today would download, for example, as 2013\22-Dec-2013\16A098.CR2
I'll usually just leave the date folder name intact for while during my early processing, since about 99.99% of the time that date folder will contain the photos from a single subject/shoot.
Then once I've pretty much dealt with all the culling and editing, I right-click that folder in the LR library and give it a descriptive name, e.g. my 2013\28-Nov-2013 folder got renamed to "2013 Family Thanksgiving". When renaming the folder in the LR catalog, the physical folder on the drive also gets renamed.
I keep 3 years worth of folders in my current LR catalog - the current year, plus the previous two. So right now I have folders for 2011 through 2013 in my current LR working catalog. At the beginning of each year, LR automatically adds a new year folder when performing the first download for that year. So when I do my first download in 2014, LR will automatically create 2014 folder in the catalog, and start downloading all 2014 photos in to date folders for that year. At that point, I go to the oldest year currently open in the catalog - in this case, 2011 - export it out in to it's own catalog, then remove it from the current working catalog. So after January 1, 2014, I'll have folders for 2012 through 2014 in the current working catalog.
The annual catalog exports are also named by year and sent to their own separate "Lightroom Exports" folder. I've only had one occasion in a couple of years to have to go back to one of these exported catalogs to retrieve an image.