I'm somewhat bored at the office today, so I'll give you a quick rundown of the primary adjustments (tool-agnostic) that I make to most photos - in order and why I make them:
0. Cropping (as needed) - I usually begin by cropping so the photo I'm working on is exactly the framing I want
1. White balance - fix this first as it affects exposure and colors
2. Global Contrast - again, this affects other adjustments - I typically add a touch to most shots, but more if there's flare, fog, or other things that have reduced contrast, unless that's the look I want
3. Exposure - I expose the right for everything but studio lit stuff, so I usually bump down the midtones a bit with the exposure setting, or if there are no true blacks or whites, I adjust for the midtone level I want
4. Black & white points - usually with curves tool. I make sure to adjust with the over- or under-exposure shown so I don't go too far. If the shot is high or low key, I'm careful about doing too much or too little at either end. If the shot has no blacks or whites, I generally skip this step.
5. Color - using HSL- if there is a color cast left after WB adjustments, I correct it here.
6. Vibrancy - with most lenses, I leave this alone or just add a touch, but some of my older lenses seemed to need a slight bump. If the light was flat or the High ISO robbed the color, I'll add it here.
7. Saturation - using HSL - If there's a specific color I want to emphasize (yellow flowers in a landscape, perhaps) or reduce (say reds in skintones), I'll use the HSL slider to add or reduce saturation for that specific color
8. Local contrast - I'll typically add some local contrast to most shots, but will reduce it for portraits - this affects sharpness
9. Sharpness - this is usually my final global adjustment and I will tweak it depending on how sharp the focus/lens is, how high of ISO I used, and the subject matter.
10. Local edits - dust spots from the sensor, red eye, blemishes, etc. I try to do as much work with global changes during raw conversion and I prefer to do as much in camera as possible, but Photoshop is great for layer blends, retouching, masking, and much more if that's what I need.
I may have missed a step or two, but I think that covers 90% of what I do on 90% of my photos.