This is too simpleminded as others have pointed out. Global companies such as Canon have complex finances that aren't subject to simple rules like you showed. For starters, money if fungible, which means that a local dollar (a buck collected in the US) doesn't necessarily have to be repatriated, thereby going through the horrific currency exchange you mention. Canon employs people across the world including the US - maybe that buck is 'kept' on US soil and used 'to pay' US Canon employees. Or maybe it's 'kept' on US soil and used 'to pay' for US goods that are shipped to Japan for Canon's manufacturing, or it is spent on US advertising, or a web presence in the US. Or maybe Japan has lenient tax laws and that buck doesn't need to be converted at all.
Who knows? These are all stupid examples, because the answer you gave is nonsensical. The answer to the price increase is because Canon marketing decided this is the price the market will bear.
I've always like the word "fungible" so +1 for that. You are correct about the complex financial structures of multi-national corporations and the fact that dollars generated in the US do not have to be actually converted back to Yen. However, Canon USA's financial statements are, every quarter, converted to Yen and consolidated with the parent corporation. You are also correct in stating that Canon has set the price based on what they think they can sell it for but unfortunately, you're incorrectly dismissing the exchange rate. While I have agreed with others that is is overly simplistic to attribute the USD price increase solely on the exchange, I firmly believe that Canon set the price in Yen first and then set the price in other currencies possibly deviating from the straight FX conversion to account for market conditions but not by much. They would not have decided to set the price at 283,000 yen and then "set" US price at say $2700 causing an $800 price disparity.