Super Takumar 50mm f/1.4 is possibly one of the most well-regarded fifties, 8-element first version goes for just over $100, much more common 7-element version from $50-100 (some people claim 7 is not as sharp, i've got one and don't have any complaints).
That or FL 55/1.2 with an EdMika adapter (although that's $200 plus another $100 for the adapter, but then it's f/1.2).
On the wide end, Takumar 35/2 as you've said, Zeiss Flektogon 20/2.8, 20/4, or 35/2.4 are all well regarded (i've got none of them so google your own opinions). Or any Zeiss in C/Y mount, but then they can go up to almost the price of today's ZE/ZF versions.
For macro, I've got the OM bellows, and i'm waiting for a good price on the 20mm or 38mm macro lenses. I've also got the OM 50mm macro, and a Super Ozeck 28mm f/2.8, and i've just realised I haven't used them since I got them so I can't provide IQ reviews.
Takumar 50mm and 100mm macro are also highly regarded, around the $100 mark.
Long end, look for a Takumar 300mm f/4.0, in M42 mount, or if you're strong then maybe in Pentax 67 mount is cheaper.
Also Zeiss MC Sonnar 180/2.8 and 300/4.0 in Pentacon Six mount are good, the 180 can go for $100-200, I paid $250 for my MC Sonnar 300mm. Damn nice in good light when you can keep shutter speeds high enough to handhold them.
Meyer Optik Orestegor 500mm f/5.6 is also for Pentacon Six, buy an adapter or you can swap the mount to M42. It's good. But buy a tripod.