I did quite a few tests using my Zeiss ZE 25/2, 50/2 MP and 100/2 MP. These are all superb lenses but like all lenses, they exhibit a combination of vignetting, optical aberration and field curvature.
On an APS-C frame, they can all be used stopped down 1 stop. On a full frame, they they are not good enough for astrophotography unless stopped down to f/5.6, f/4 and f/4 respectively. The same conclusion largely holds for the 21/2.8 except that the field of view becomes something of a liability rather than a help.
This should hardly be a surprise - even the very fastest astrograph from Takahashi operates at f/2.8 which is really about T/3.5 and can only illuminate an APS-C frame.
You can draw your own conclusions on how this relates to the 16-35 and 17-40, neither of which is particularly sharp unless stopped down considerably. I have no experience of the 14 mm Samyang but I friend uses the 14 mm Canon lens quite successfully.
Secondly, I honestly don't know what the OP's problem is with a sky tracker. You can get a sharp foreground and sharp stars by layering two images. As others have pointed out, it is sensible to stack the astro-image so that you can suppress noise. It may have been linked to above but this ebook is worth study http://astropix.com/BGDA/BGDA.HTM
If cost is the issue, a sky tracker is easy to make - basically two pieces of wood and a hinge and a screw to rotate at 1 rpm using your finger. Look up "barn door tracker." Here's a very basic one that's good for 30 minutes at least... http://psychohistorian.org/display_article.php?id=201303261529_barn-door