For me it depends on the situation and the lens. I assume we are mostly discussing shooting people? Most of the time it's important to make use of the bokeh of a fast lens, and to isolate the person from the background and foreground. But I personally am not a professional people photographer at this time. Also, some fast medium focal length lenses do have "focus shift", when the aperture is closed a bit...so beware of that. It's difficult to compensate for.
I do kind of agree with the above about having one eye out of focus, or a whole person out of focus. It's heavily dependent on the photographer's artistic vision, and how well he/she can sell that vision to the client...as well as just how "good" the final result actually looks...which honestly could vary from one shot to the next.
For landscape, it depends on how deep I want the sharp focus to be, and sometimes on the available light...and on the shutter speed I want. Also it can depend on the characteristics of the lens, how sharp it is to the borders and corners, etc.
Your hands are a bit more tied when using a crop camera, due to the noise, when shooting at small apertures, etc. It can be dealt with to a degree.
Most every lens evens out its resolution across the frame when closed to f/8, but that is not how any 50mm f/1.4 is meant to be used "most of the time." For my infinity focus aerial photography, I usually close my 70-200 f/4...to f/9, and set shutter speed to 1/2500 (in a small airplane it's difficult to hold the camera, and yourself...extremely still!). The image noise and dynamic range are more than tolerable via the 6D, and the resolution extends to the extreme corners at all zoom settings, with almost no CA, and excellent color.
I just ordered a 24-105 off ebay today, and have rented one before. For its zoom range, IS, IQ, and price, it's hard to beat. Has quite a bit more CA than my 70-200 f/4 (non-IS), but that's easily fixed in post or in camera.
With my Voigtlander 58mm f/1.4 Nokton, since it's a fully manual lens...it becomes more difficult for the camera's light meter to provide accurate results, as aperture gets closed down. The lens is sharp at all settings, though. If I had to have an autofocus 50mm, I would certainly buy the Canon f/1.4...but for my purposes the Voigtlander delivers higher IQ along with its fussy user interface, for only slightly higher cost. As for the Canon 50mm f/1.8, I used to own one, I liked it...but I like the 40mm f/2.8 pancake a bit better.