The greater the focal length of a lens, the more it magnifies. Keeping object distance the same, a telephoto lens renders it larger than a wideangle lens. This much should be obvious. But it also directly follows that if you want to render an object the same size with a wideangle as with a telephoto, you need to decrease the object distance. To get a 1:1 magnification with a 35mm lens then obviously requires a shorter focusing distance than with, say, a 100mm lens.
The distance between object and image plane is four times the focal length if you have a 1:1 reproduction of the object if a single lens element is used. (e.g. 35mm lens - 140mm distance / 100mm lens - 400mm distance)
Complex lens designs use some tricks to do 1:1 like reducing the focal length a little bit for closer focus distances to get the 1:1 reproduction ratio with less travel/material. But if you look at the second table in the following link from Bryan Carnathans web page - https://www.the-digital-picture.com/Reviews/Canon-EF-S-60mm-f-2.8-Macro-USM-Lens-Review.aspx - you see that the MFD is roughly twice the MWorkingD with some exceptions.